Exclusive Content
Original Shows, Motorsports and Live Events
Due to the EU’s Global Data Protection Regulation, our website is currently unavailable to visitors from most European countries. We apologize for this inconvenience and encourage you to visit www.motortrend.com for the latest on new cars, car reviews and news, concept cars and auto show coverage, awards and much more.MOTORTREND.COM
  • |
  • |
  • SEMA Automotive Hobby Information - Can The Government Legislate Away Your HD Truck?

SEMA Automotive Hobby Information - Can The Government Legislate Away Your HD Truck?

You Can Be A Part Of Making Sure It Doesn't

The Staff of 8-Lug
Oct 1, 2010
Contributors: Sema Action Network
The Changing Political Landscape And The Need For Enthusiast Involvement
The 2010 elections are here, and at no time in recent history has Washington been so divided. Less than two years ago, then Senator Barack Obama led a movement united by the desire for change. Voters wanted a new era of bipartisan cooperation, openness, and an abandonment of "politics as usual."
Photo 2/14   |   Line Line
The realities of backroom politics quickly eroded campaign ideals. Battle lines were fortified and partisan rancor is now stronger than ever.
It's easy to identify key events that hastened the downfall. We must also acknowledge that circumstances at the beginning of 2009 were dire. The world economy wavered and consumers and businesses alike were gripped by fear. Early decisions made by the Obama Administration and Congress helped bring stability to the markets but also left a sour taste for many. Did we bail out the right people? Did we mortgage our future to jump-start the economy? Will skyrocketing deficits lead to stagflation, inflation, or other types of economic grief?
Health care reform underscored the divisions. Early on there was a "debate" on how to address the twin issues of skyrocketing premiums and the millions of Americans without health care insurance. But by last summer, it had devolved into issue ads and angry town hall gatherings.
We are again at an election crossroads in which many voters are seeking "change." That's what this issue of the magazine is about-an opportunity to consider how actions being taken by federal and state lawmakers impact you, the auto enthusiast. The need for the enthusiast community to stay informed and become involved is greater than ever. From equipment standards to wilderness designations, the government is making decisions about your current and future truck.
This topic is not limited to Washington. While the federal government issues national rules dictating vehicle safety and emissions equipment, most other issues are handled at the state and local levels. From suspension and vehicle height to inspection and maintenance, your truck is subject to decisions made by state and local officials.
The future of our hobby depends on you. The ballot box is one venue for making your views known. We also urge you to work collectively with your fellow enthusiasts. How? Join the SEMA Action Network (SAN). SAN is a partnership between enthusiasts, car clubs, and members of the specialty auto parts industry in the United States and Canada who have pledged to join forces in support of legislative solutions for the auto hobby. It's free to join and SAN keeps you informed about pending legislation and regulations-both good and bad-that will impact your state or the entire country. It also provides you with action alerts, speaking points, and lawmaker contact information if you want to support or oppose a bill. Join now: www.semasan.com
How Government Wilderness Designations Impact Off-Roaders
The joys of off-roading include opportunities to commune with nature and bond with friends and family. Off-road clubs host clean-ups and help maintain existing trail systems, and the economies of many local communities depend on off-road activities. Despite the efforts by recreationalists to responsibly access and use public lands, encountering a "road closed" sign is happening more and more around the country. Here is what every off-roader needs to know.
Road closures and other threats to off-highway vehicle (OHV) access typically take form in federal legislation passed by the U.S. Congress or regulations issued by the U.S. Forest Service or U.S. Bureau of Land Management. The most onerous threat is when land is designated as wilderness. This is virtually the strictest form of public land management since nearly all forms of non-pedestrian recreation are illegal. No mechanized equipment is allowed, and trails are limited to people who travel by foot or horseback. For everyone else, you gaze at the wilderness from afar.
Wilderness does serve an important environmental purpose-protecting plants and animals and America's natural heritage. The question is the amount of land that needs such a restrictive designation and whether it is possible to permit some motorized activities on portions of the land. When Congress enacted the Wilderness Act in 1964, it set aside 9 million acres of land. There are now about 110 million acres and Congress may soon add another 20 or 30 million acres.
Only Congress can designate wilderness by enacting legislation into law. There are some OHV-friendly solutions when considering such bills. One is to "cherry-stem" existing roads and trails so they do not receive the designation, thereby permitting travel in a wilderness area. Another is creating a "backcountry" designation that would permit motorized activity on certain lands while simultaneously protecting the environment.
In recent years, the anti-OHV lobby has pursued scores of wilderness bills in an effort to lock up as much land as possible. When these bills are rushed through Congress, however, there is little opportunity to cherry-stem existing roads and trails. In fact, the wilderness designation may be an intentional means to force responsible OHV recreationalists off public land.
In 2009, Congress combined more than 160 separate wilderness measures into one gigantic bill called the "Omnibus Public Land Management Act." The law created nearly 2.2 million acres of new wilderness in nine states, including areas in and around Joshua Tree National Park and the Eastern Sierras in California, Owyhee-Bruneau Canyonlands in Idaho, Mt. Hood in Oregon, Zion National Park in Utah, and the Sabinoso Wilderness in New Mexico. The OHV community is still identifying roads and trails that were swept up in the closures, for example, the Mt. Canaan Trail in Utah.
More threats are on the horizon. The current Congress is considering dozens of other wilderness measures which, if combined into a single bill, could encompass as much as 25 or 30 million acres of land across the country! Scores of popular OHV trails could be closed.
Most of the potential wilderness subject to legislation has already been set aside by Congress as Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs). WSAs are millions of acres of federal lands that generally retain a primeval character, which may make them eligible for a future wilderness designation, and the federal agencies manage them accordingly. It is important to note that Congress will release WSAs that do not meet the wilderness criteria. In fact, many WSAs have roads, trails, and other evidence of human activities, which should nullify that particular area as wilderness.
Solutions For Maintaining OHV Access
Preserving America's natural heritage for future generations is vitally important and can be accomplished through managed care of the nation's public lands in a manner that balances protection and responsible recreational opportunities.
Some means by which Government and users can accomplish this goal are:
• OHV policies that recognize the importance of vehicle-oriented recreation: Increased OHV use in recent years has provided the American public with the ability to enjoy public lands in record numbers.
• Case-by-case reviews of all WSAs to determine an appropriate designation that has widespread local community support. Decisions must be based, in part, on an inventory of all developments within the WSA, including roads, trails, buildings, etc. to determine whether that area meets the wilderness criteria.
• Cherry-stemming existing roads/trails, a process by which they are excluded from the wilderness area and thereby can remain open for recreation.
• Creating a new designation called backcountry to supplement the wilderness designation. Backcountry would facilitate motorized recreation while still protecting the land. The designation would expand access and recreation opportunities to a large percentage of Americans who do not visit wilderness areas, including the very young, elderly, and physically challenged.
• Relying on broad national guidelines combined with local management decision-making: It is important that local officials have authority to work with the public and State, Federal, and Tribal government leaders to make appropriate decisions regarding OHV access.
• Involving the public in decision-making: Government agencies should be required to seek the active participation of the public in the process of designating OHV access.
• Setting flexible timetables for various designations (wilderness, OHV-use policy, etc.): The designation process is complex and may vary from forest to forest, or other federal land area. While there may be a uniform approach, the specifics must be dealt with at the local level, according to the unique circumstances of each land area.
• Incorporating certain user-created routes: By default, the OHV designation process places the onus on the OHV recreational community to identify routes that were created in recent years that have not yet been inventoried by the USFS or BLM (user-created routes). Many of these routes came into existence during "open" management and serve a legitimate need and purpose, and they do not pose an environmental threat. In some cases, these uninventoried routes may even be more environmentally friendly and provide a better overall access solution than their inventoried counterparts.
• Setting defined vehicle classes and use authorizations: Vehicle classes need to be defined at the federal level so there is uniform application across the country when it comes to planning, mapping of roads/trails, etc.
The Case For Reasonable Vehicle Height Modifications
Modifications that affect vehicle suspension and steering, as well as those changing the vehicle's frame and/or bumper height, continue to draw attention from regulators and legislators alike. Many state regulations are more restrictive than necessary. Others discriminate against aftermarket parts manufacturers and their customers by allowing the vehicle manufacturers to effectively set the frame and bumper height standards. In addition, state vehicle suspension and height regulations are often so unclear that neither equipment manufacturers, installers, the motorist, nor the inspection technician has any clear guidance.
Photo 6/14   |   Many laws (like bumper height, lights, lifts) limit your creativity in designing your truck. It can, and will, get worse if you don't do something about it.
The Specialty Equipment Market Association (SEMA) and the industry it represents has a long history of supporting responsible regulations in the matter of raised vehicles and a willingness to work with government entities to assess and improve state regulations with the assistance of comprehensive data and support.
Through its office in Washington, D.C., SEMA has been actively involved with states in developing well-targeted regulations that can be enforced in a practical way. In fact, when an association of government motor vehicle administrators generated a model regulation on raised vehicles in 1988, SEMA presented technical input and suggestions that helped shape it. SEMA still believes that well-crafted regulations can achieve the important goal of eliminating unreasonable vehicle elevation while allowing a level of modification that is useful for both on- and off-road activities. The model regulation was intended to address the question of how much is too much and lays down very specific limits on frame height and bumper height for classes based on gross vehicle weight (see sidebar).
SEMA supports the model because it was founded on a comprehensive engineering analysis and data and because it allows a reasonable opportunity for vehicle utility and performance-enhancing modifications. When adopted and enforced correctly, the model prohibits unreasonable height modifications. This would include the type of monster truck modifications, which have been identified as a leading bane of state regulators.
When regulated within a reasonable standard, the variation in vehicle bumper and frame heights due to aftermarket modification is generally not a factor, considering the greater variation between stock vehicles on the road today. Stricter regulations will not solve this difference among vehicles in the national fleet. Vehicles of vastly differing bumper heights-from sports cars and stock pickups to tractor-trailers and school buses-come off the assembly lines each year. It would be plainly unfair to restrict one small subset of vehicles; for example, those raised 3 or 4 inches to a height of 25 inches, when thousands of new vehicles enter the roads daily with 27-, 30-, or 31-inch bumper heights.
Some regulatory efforts have focused inquiries on tire size. Because tire size affects both bumper height and frame height, reasonable bumper and frame limits can effectively regulate against inappropriate tire size. To accommodate substantial increases in tire size, vehicles must have body lifts to create the necessary space under the wheelwell. Once the body lift modifications have been made, reasonable bumper and frame height limits mean the vehicle has only a limited additional margin for height due to a larger tire.
Industry has also promoted quality assurance in the manufacture of steering components. A number of SEMA member companies participated in the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) group, which developed "Considerations for Suspension Modification" to assist manufacturers of suspension modification equipment in taking into account engineering and related factors concerning these modifications. Manufacturers of tires and wheels are working with vehicle manufacturers and dealers to adjust vehicle onboard emissions diagnostics and electronic stability control (ESC) systems to account for tire/wheel alterations. In most instances, the variance is addressed by the automotive companies, which offer a range of wheel/tire sizes. In any case, the aftermarket recognizes it will need to have a means to ensure a wheel/tire modification does not disable or eliminate the vehicle's onboard emissions control system or bring the vehicle out of compliance with ESC standards.
Emissions Regulations And Diesel Vehicles
On-road diesel vehicles are a prime target for performance improvements. Among the various modifications that are popular for these vehicles, specific changes to calibrations in the original equipment manufacturer's (OEM) electronic control module (ECM) can provide significant gains for improvements that range from towing to outright high performance, dating back to vehicles in the late '90s to the current model year.
Both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and California Air Resources Board (CARB) have the authority to regulate diesel emissions. Up until 2003, the manufacturers of performance parts for these vehicles were primarily required to meet CARB requirements for emissions compliance by the same test protocol used to certify gasoline-fueled vehicle performance parts. Parts manufacturers were able to test and certify parts on a chassis dyno, using the same test procedure the diesel OEMs use. However, all this changed in 2003 when the diesel OEMs were required to begin certifying their engines on an engine dyno, thereby significantly raising the cost of certification faced by producers of aftermarket parts who were then required to use the same test method. The complexity and cost of certification tests performed on an engine dyno are several times more expensive than when using a chassis dyno.
Because the EPA recognizes parts certified by CARB as demonstrating a reasonable basis for compliance outside of California, obtaining certification in California is the goal for aftermarket part manufacturers. Still, the cost of certifying parts on an engine dyno was cost-prohibitive for most of these manufacturers. At this point, working with CARB staff, an alternative and more cost-effective test was sought by SEMA. SEMA assumed a leadership role in working with CARB to establish a less expensive test protocol that would be concurrently acceptable to diesel performance parts manufacturers and CARB. As it turned out, the test procedures now being followed are quite similar to the pre-2003 chassis dyno method, with the added requirement that a specific steady-state mode is also included.
It has required almost seven years to conclude, but an agreement has been reached with CARB regarding a way to once again test diesel parts on a chassis dyno. Part of CARB's motivation to develop this technique was based on the California Bureau of Automotive Repair's (BAR) decision to include on-road diesel vehicles in its smog-check program, beginning January 1, 2010. Now that diesel performance parts manufacturers have a way to certify their products, they are able to proceed to compliance by a process similar to the one required for gasoline-fueled vehicle performance parts for legal use not only in California, but for use outside that state as well.
For '10-and-later on-road light- and medium-duty diesels, the OEMs will be allowed to use chassis dyno test methods for new vehicle certification. This is largely due to technological advances in the diesel particulate filter (DPF) systems and the level of emissions reduction efficiency this brings into play. CARB has also developed a program whereby diesel parts manufacturers seeking emissions compliance can submit the proper application materials and be placed on a Products in Progress list. Components placed on this list will not cause vehicles with not-yet-certified parts to fail the new diesel smog-check test for a period of one year, during which time manufacturers can complete their CARB emissions certifications.
Equipment Standards And Inspections
Understanding how vehicles and car parts are regulated can be a bit confusing. Here is a quick overview.
Photo 7/14   |   A lot of aftermarket products make trucks run better, stronger, and with fewer harmful emissions. The SEMA Action Network is designed to allow for these parts to continue to be sold and used.
The Federal government, through the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), has the right to set, enforce, and investigate safety standards for new motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment. These Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) are performance-based. They do not dictate design elements. For example, the federal lighting standard prescribes the photometric requirements for a headlamp but does not dictate shape or size.
The FMVSS covers basic types of equipment (tires, rims, headlamps/taillamps, brake hoses, etc.) and establishes vehicle crashworthiness requirements (front and side impact, roof-crush resistance, fuel system integrity, etc.).
Emissions and emissions-related parts are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and various state agencies, primary of which is the California Air Resources Board (CARB). For products sold in California (and states that have adopted the California standards), manufacturers must conform to standards issued by CARB.
Federal law prohibits states from issuing motor vehicle safety regulations that conflict with federal standards. This is called federal preemption. However, states are free to enact and enforce safety and equipment regulations that are identical to the FMVSS or, in the absence of a federal rule, establish their own laws and regulations. The most frequent examples of individual state rules cover parts like optional or accessory lighting equipment, noise levels for exhaust and stereo systems, suspension height, and window tinting. States also establish rules on how a vehicle is titled and registered. State and local jurisdictions have authority to regulate inoperable vehicles or determine whether an enthusiast is engaged in a business vs. private activity. State and local law enforcement officials issue tickets and inspect cars.
State laws have evolved over many generations and they continue to change. Some laws are better than others, and there is a constant need to remind state policy makers not to be biased in favor of the vehicle's original equipment, such as lighting, tires and wheels, suspension components, and bumper/frame height. For example, some state laws allow motorists to be ticketed when an officer has made a subjective noise level determination that the exhaust system is "louder than what came with the car." To cite another example, bills have been introduced in state legislatures to ban spinners even though they are legal at the federal level. Opposing arbitrary and unnecessarily restrictive equipment and inspection laws is a constant challenge.
Gas Guzzler Laws
Gas Guzzler laws primarily come out of state legislatures in misguided attempts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. A bill in New York, for example, seeks to establish a progressive purchase or lease surcharge for some new motor vehicles based on calculations of carbon emissions. Depending on the vehicle purchased, this surcharge could require owners to pay up to $2,500 more for a vehicle. Another bill in New York proposes to create a task force that would recommend higher toll and registration fees for vehicles based on the vehicle's weight, emissions, and fuel-efficiency ratings. In California, a similar measure was recently defeated that would have added a surcharge to some vehicles based on state calculations of carbon emissions. If such an effort were successful, the effects on a consumer's ability to purchase their vehicle of choice-not to mention vehicle safety-would be dramatic. These measures would also make popular performance and luxury cars, as well as SUVs, light trucks, and minivans, substantially more expensive to own without necessarily curtailing greenhouse gas emissions, since greenhouse gas emissions have more to do with overall basic vehicle maintenance than with owning and operating any particular class of vehicle.
Photo 8/14   |   Greenhouse Gas Regulations At The Federal and State (CA) Levels
CAFE And CO2 Standards
Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards strive to achieve reduced greenhouse gas emissions through a reduction in the amount of fuel new vehicles burn. Manufacturers are given a fuel economy rating-measured in miles per gallon-that their fleet as a whole must average in a given model year. Congress passed a law in 1973 directing the EPA to set CAFE standards, making these standards a tool exclusively wielded by the federal government. The federal government finalized new fuel-economy standards as well as a national carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions tailpipe standard in April this past year. The two issues are related since CO2 is released in direct proportion to the amount of carbon-based fuel that is burned. Under the new rules, NHTSA has set CAFE standards for model year (MY) 2012-2016 vehicles and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established corresponding CO2 emissions standards. The combined action would match CO2 emissions standards previously adopted by California and 13 other states.
The average CAFE rating will be 35.5 mpg in 2016 based on a combined 39-mpg rating for passenger cars and 30 mpg for light trucks. The EPA's CO2 emissions standard is 250 grams per mile for vehicles sold in 2016, roughly the equivalent of 35.5 mpg. The automakers support (and participated in formulating) the rules since they provide a reasonable national approach to regulating CO2 emissions rather than a patchwork of state rules.
NHTSA will use an attribute-based system, which sets CAFE standards for individual fleets of vehicles based on size, taking into account the differences between cars and light trucks (SUVs, pickups, and vans). Individual car companies will have flexibility on how to achieve the rules, whether placing more emphasis on hybrids or reducing vehicle size and weight. Nevertheless, a standard based on each vehicle's footprint should force automakers to increase the efficiency of every vehicle rather than downsizing some vehicles in order to offset the sale of bigger cars. Automakers will likely rely on more fuel-efficient tires, turbochargers, low-friction lubricants, six-speed automatic transmissions, and similar technological means to achieve the standards.
While the new CAFE and CO2 standards for 2016 are reasonable, the Obama Administration announced plans to put in place stronger rules for 2017 and beyond. In May, President Obama directed the EPA to also reduce emissions of conventional pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides. The president also instructed regulators to establish fuel economy and CO2 standards for medium- and heavy-duty trucks for the first time beginning in MY 2014. Since the government is to regulate CO2 emissions from automobiles, it should do so through the CAFE standards and not allow any individual state to set overly harsh standards.
The California Air Resources Board (CARB) is also pursuing CO2 standards for MY 2017-25 cars and trucks. CARB intends to coordinate its action with the EPA and NHTSA, along with the automakers and other stakeholders, with the goal of setting a single national standard. Federal regulators were expected to issue a game plan for MY 2017-25 light-duty vehicles by press time and adopt a final rule by mid-2012, while CARB officials want to complete action on the CO2 standards by the end of 2010.
Drastically increased CAFE potentially limits consumer choice if manufacturers are forced to make smaller, less powerful, and less useful cars and light-duty vehicles in order to meet government fuel economy demands. Market-based solutions which allow the consumer to participate in and respond to national energy policies must be employed.
Tire Fuel Efficiency
A lot rides on your tires. That will soon include greenhouse gases, namely carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Both California and the federal government are pursuing regulations to rate replacement tires for "fuel efficiency" in an effort to influence consumer choice. In theory, if a tire is more fuel-efficient, less gas is burned and therefore less CO2 is emitted into the atmosphere. Some state lawmakers want to go one step further and mandate emissions limits...within their state boundaries.
Photo 9/14   |   Tires can make or break a vehicle's looks and performance. Don't let the government tell you which tires you can use.
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is drafting a consumer information system to rate the fuel economy, safety, and durability characteristics of most replacement tires. NHTSA has established test procedures to be used by tire manufacturers in determining tire ratings but is still considering options on how to convey the information to consumers at the point of sale and on the Internet. Companies that only produce 15,000 units or less in a tire line (or 35,000 tires in total brand name production)-mostly tires for classic and antique vehicles or off-highway vehicles-are exempted since fuel efficiency for these types is not a primary consumer concern. Tire manufacturers are considering new rubber compounds, tire designs, and other methods to boost efficiency without negatively impacting traction and strength.
The premise for the new program is to allow consumers to compare ratings for different replacement tires and determine the effect of tire choices on fuel economy or the potential trade-offs between tire fuel efficiency (rolling resistance), safety (wet traction), and durability (treadwear life). The information may be conveyed in the form of a 1 to 5 star rating system for each category, a 0 to 100 rating system, or some similar approach. The tire ratings would be included on a label affixed to each tire.
California is pursuing a variation of the federal program whereby state regulators could assign a "fuel-efficient tire" ranking to the top 15 percent of tires with the lowest rolling resistance within their size and load class. All other tested tires would be ranked as "tires that are not fuel efficient." If enacted, the testing program could take effect in mid-2011. The California program also contains the exemption for tires produced in units less than 15,000.
Photo 10/14   |   SEMA Automotive Hobby Information government Tire Rating
California was the first to pursue the issue, passing a law in 2003 to require a consumer information program. Congress followed suit with a federal program in 2007 and preempted any other states from establishing consumer information initiatives that differed from the national or California programs.
But some state lawmakers still insist on going one step further. For example, a bill has been introduced in New York to mandate that replacement tires be as energy efficient as tires sold as original equipment. To date, the bill has been rejected since it would essentially set a 50-state standard, potentially impose substantial redesign costs on tire manufacturers, and conflict with the federal/California programs.
When it comes to consumer information, the big question is whether the focus of attention is misplaced. Will consumers be dissuaded from buying tires that may have improved performance, handling, or appearance features, based solely on a rolling resistance rating? In addition, the program may easily distract consumers from focusing on more important safety issues such as tire inflation and overloading of vehicles.
On that topic, the most inefficient tires are the ones that are underinflated. A motorist can easily lose 3 or 4 percent in gas mileage when tires are underinflated. Moreover, a tire that is not properly inflated compromises handling and braking.
Window Tint
Severe limits on window film light transmission and reflectance percentages continue to surface in a number of states. It is important to constantly remind state legislators to advance the industry standard of not less than 35 percent light transmittance on all windows other than the windshield and oppose measures that would unreasonably limit the use of window tint materials.
However, not every bill aims to limit the use of window tint. A bill directing the California Air Resources Board (CARB) to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through a reduction in motor vehicle cabin temperature is currently moving through the California legislature. The cabin temperature of a vehicle can be lowered through the use of window tinting materials. Such a directive by the legislature would signal to regulators that tinting should be considered a solution to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions created when drivers must idle their cars in California while waiting for them to cool down. Other states have introduced measures to provide exceptions to the limits on vehicle window tinting for drivers with sensitivity to light.
Lighting Equipment Advances And Government Regulations
Lighting technology has entered a new dimension. Light-emitting diodes, for example, are blazing a new path from taillamps to headlamps. Automotive lamps can now produce light beams that bend around corners, lengthen when the car is going fast, and shorten and widen when the car slows down. The aftermarket industry is on the leading edge of these technological advances that promote safety and provide styling alternatives for new lighting products. Much of this innovative aftermarket equipment for cars, trucks, and SUVs provides greater road illumination and creates increased visibility. Federal and state regulators are working to keep current with these advances and also confirm that new products comply with existing regulations.
Photo 11/14   |   Aftermarket lighting is under attack from multiple states.
FEDERAL OVERSIGHT: The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is the federal agency that regulates original and aftermarket motor vehicle lighting products, including newer technologies coming into the marketplace. Attention has been focused on non-compliant High Intensity Discharge (HID) conversion kits that may produce glare and restyled combination lamps that are missing required functions existing on the original equipment lamps. Certain clear taillamp covers, marker lamps, certain blue headlamp bulbs, and other equipment have also been subject to scrutiny.
Optional lighting equipment (non-federally required) is not prohibited by federal law but is sometimes regulated by the states. Many states establish optional lighting restrictions through the authority of the state police or the state transportation agency.
STATE REGULATION: State-level enforcement of federally required lighting equipment cannot deviate from what is prescribed by the federal government. This is called federal preemption. However, states are free to enact and enforce safety and equipment regulations that are identical to the federal safety standards. States also have jurisdiction to enact and enforce vehicle equipment and safety regulations covering equipment not regulated at the federal level, such as optional or accessory lighting equipment. Some states prohibit a vehicle from being equipped with a lamp or lighting device unless such lamp or lighting device is expressly required or permitted by law or regulation. Other states may regulate optional lighting equipment for maximum candlepower, location and placement, aim of light beam and the times, and places and conditions under which the lamps or lights may be used. They may prohibit the use of flashing, oscillating, modulating, or rotating lights of any color while the vehicle is being operated on a public highway.
Still, other states only allow optional lighting equipment that was developed and installed by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). This OEM lighting equipment meets no standards except those established by the manufacturers themselves. These lamps are often of the same or greater intensity than those developed and installed by the aftermarket and frequently aimed and positioned similarly. In this way, these states unfairly discriminate against the installation and use of aftermarket lamps.
Exhaust Noise: How Loud Is Too Loud?
Imagine driving down the road and getting stopped for the modified muffler on your treasured 4x4. Now imagine sitting on the shoulder and receiving a citation from local law enforcement while a stock Ferrari overtakes you and drives on with a rumble. This is the scene being played on state highways across the country-the result of poorly drafted or ineffective state laws and regulations. The laws on the books in these states frequently cite the manufacturer's specifications or a factory-installed muffler as the basis on which vehicle exhaust noise is measured.
Photo 12/14   |   SEMA Automotive Hobby Information vehicle Noise Laws
On this topic, states can generally be divided into two major categories: states with noise standards and states without noise standards. Of the states with a test standard on the books, many ignore guidelines when handing out citations. Most states that have chosen to go the route of setting specifications choose to measure a vehicle's noise by decibels. States that have quantifiable noise standards on the books are shaded red in the map shown. These standards often go unenforced. One reason these regulations are not enforced is that they are based on an in-use standard-exhaust noise is measured while a vehicle is in motion on the highway. The states that employ these operating standards typically divide vehicles into classes and then set separate standards: one for vehicles while driving on roads with a speed limit of 35 mph or less and a second standard for vehicles driving on roadways with a speed limit greater than 35 mph. The measurements are to be taken while the vehicle is in motion on the road, usually from a distance of 50 feet from the center lane of travel.
Other states choose not to specify a quantifiable noise standard. These states are shown in yellow in the map. Typical language in these states' statutes includes prohibitions on "excessive or unusual noise" from a vehicle's exhaust system. While most motorists believe exhaust systems should not be used in a way that causes overly loud or objectionable noise, these vague provisions fail to provide a clear and objective standard for those seeking more durable exhaust systems that enhance a vehicle's appearance and increase performance.
Language that effectively limits the use of aftermarket exhausts can be found amongst both yellow and red states. Such language includes sentences such as "no person shall modify the exhaust system of a motor vehicle in any manner which will amplify or increase the noise or sound emitted louder than that emitted by the muffler originally installed on the vehicle." While such language does not specifically prohibit all modification, it does not provide any means of measuring whether a vehicle has been acceptably modified. Such language also negatively affects the aftermarket industry by placing the noise limit authority in the hands of the OEMs and ignores the fact that aftermarket exhaust systems are designed to make vehicles run more efficiently without increasing emissions.
Green on the map identifies the three states that have enacted SEMA-model legislation to provide enthusiasts and law enforcement officials with a fair and enforceable alternative. The model legislation establishes a 95-decibel exhaust noise limit based on an industry standard adopted by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). Under this standard (SAE J1169), a sound meter is placed 20 inches from the exhaust outlet at a 45-degree angle and the engine is revved to three quarters of maximum rated horsepower. The highest decibel reading is then recorded.
Previous California law allowed modifications so long as the noise levels did not exceed the 95-decibel limit. However, the roadside enforcement of this limit was chaotic, leading to subjective, selective, and improper enforcement.
Enforcement of the previous law and regulations in California, for example, resulted in many drivers being pulled over by state and local police and cited for improper modified exhaust systems despite having what they believed to be legal aftermarket exhausts. To prove our point (and educate ourselves) about the widespread improper enforcement of the previous California exhaust law, SEMA conducted a series of exhaust noise tests in early April 2001. First, we contacted California SEMA Action Network members to see how many folks had received citations for excessive or modified exhausts. We were surprised and dismayed to learn how many fit the category! We then invited them to have their cars tested to see if they actually complied with California law. Finally, we hired a board-certified acoustical engineer and did the testing according to the standards set out in California law. Long story short, of the cars we tested, only one exceeded the 95db legal level.
To remedy this problem, in 2002 SEMA helped enact a new enforcement procedure in California through its model bill. The new law forces compliance with an objectively measured standard in a fair and predictable test. Through this procedure, motorists who drive vehicles legally equipped with modified exhaust systems can confirm that they comply with California's exhaust noise standard. The California Bureau of Automotive Repair began operation of the motor vehicle exhaust noise-testing program in 2003. The law also allows courts to dismiss citations for exhaust systems that have been tested and for which a certificate of compliance has been issued. Under the program, the 40 Smog Check stations statewide that provide referee functions are performing the test. These referee stations are issuing certificates of compliance for vehicles when tests of their exhaust systems demonstrate that they emit no more than 95 decibels under the SAE test procedure. However, only those vehicles that have received a citation for an exhaust noise violation are permitted to submit their vehicle for the test. A similar standard was enacted in Maine in 2003 and Montana in 2007.
SEMA Action Network (SAN) Maintains Record Of Achievement
Gridlock and bitter partisan politics continue to persist in Washington, D.C. and in the state capitols around the country, making positive legislative action difficult. Fortunately, the SEMA Action Network (SAN) has been breaking through the gridlock and promoting legislative solutions for the automotive hobby since 1997.
Photo 13/14   |   Line Line
SAN is a partnership between enthusiasts, vehicle clubs, and members of the specialty automotive parts industry in the United States and Canada who have joined forces to promote hobby-friendly legislation and oppose unfair laws. With nearly 40,000 members, 3 million contacts, and an ability to reach 30 million enthusiasts through print and press, SAN is the premier organization defending the rights of the vehicle hobby. SAN is free to join, with no obligations or commitments.
When it comes to taking the action needed to protect the automotive hobby, only SAN has the experience, the resources, and the dedicated network of enthusiasts to stop unreasonable bills in their tracks and keep the hobby free from overly restrictive government regulation. No other organization brings such a comprehensive set of tools and resources to bear on this mission:
* A professional government affairs staff in Washington, D.C. that works in all 50 states and at the federal level
* A full-time research staff that monitors every bill introduced in every state
* Tailored action alerts sent to enthusiasts with bill information, speaking points, and legislator contact information
* The SEMA SAN website, which features tracked legislation, action alerts, guidance on letter writing, lobbying elected officials, land-use policies, warranty denial, and a means by which you can identify your legislators
* The award-winning monthly legislative newsletter, Driving Force
* Pro-hobby-model legislation crafted by SEMA SAN staff
* The State Automotive Enthusiast Leadership Caucus-a collection of nearly 450 state legislators with a common goal to support the motor vehicle hobby
* The Congressional Motorsports Caucus-100 U.S. Representatives and Senators who have aligned to pay tribute to America's ever-growing love affair with the car and motorsports
SAN is an organization dedicated to providing the tools and information necessary for hobbyists to protect their passion. To raise awareness of important issues affecting the hobby around the country, SAN sponsors the Hot Rod Power Tour bus, travels to car shows and events, raises awareness through automotive media, operates a Facebook group and a Twitter page, and distributes issue brochures to car clubs and businesses. SAN further supports car clubs by advertising their shows and charitable events in Driving Force.
In its 13-year history, the effect of SAN on shaping government policy has been enormous. SAN has successfully:
* Enacted street rod and custom vehicle (including kit cars and replicas) registration and titling laws in 20 states
* Protected classic vehicles waiting to be restored on private property from confiscation
* Safeguarded legal off-road nitrous oxide use with SAN-model legislation
* Defended rights to use more durable aftermarket exhaust systems
* Junked state level "Cash for Clunkers" legislation
* Enacted legislation to lower taxes and fees for hobbyist vehicles
* Advocated to ensure public lands remain open to responsible off-road recreation
The current economic and legislative environment is emboldening governments to become more aggressive with their anti-auto hobby legislation. States are seeking new avenues for generating revenue and new ways of dictating what you can and cannot do with your vehicles. The message the government is sending is clear: The hobby needs the SEMA Action Network now more than ever. Enlist now in this fellowship of auto enthusiasts-join SAN at www.semasan.com.
Lobby For The Hobby
"We the people of the United States" are not just words from the first line of an old document. We are the people who love aggressive street trucks, off-road pickups, muscle cars, hot rods, street rods, tuners, replicas, and many other varieties of automotive pursuits that are as diverse as the country in which we live. We are also the people who have to work to protect our automotive passions from unnecessary, unfair, or well-intentioned but poorly written laws and regulations. Fortunately, we the people live in a country where we can still make a difference in how we are governed.
Our greatest tool in making that difference is our voice. By speaking out on issues that concern the automotive hobby, contacting our representatives, and working constructively with government officials, we have the power to protect our passion and keep it safe for future generations of auto hobbyists and enthusiasts. When legislatures are out of session, representatives are in their home districts and typically have more time to meet casually with their constituents. They are also planning for the next legislative session and deciding which bills to introduce. Contacting them can have a tremendous impact by raising their awareness of issues that could impact our hobby during the next session. That is what makes right now the perfect time to get involved and build relationships with your legislators-so hit the gas and keep your foot down!
To get you started, we have prepared 10 tips you can use when contacting your representatives:
1. Develop And Maintain Relationships With Your Legislators And Their Staff
Make contact and develop productive relationships with individual legislators. It is the most effective form of grassroots lobbying. It's also important to develop a relationship with their staff, which monitors ongoing legislative and community initiatives.
2. Educate Legislators About Our Hobby And Our Issues
Educate your legislator about the hobby and emphasize the positive impact it has on the community.
3. Maintain A Positive Attitude
Develop a positive relationship with your legislator. The next time an enthusiast-related issue comes up, that same legislator may be needed to support your cause.
4. Stay Informed
Keep up to date on the legislative issues that affect the hobby in your state. Share this information with fellow enthusiasts.
5. Get Involved In The Community
Join with other community groups to build positive exposure. Holding charity runs and fundraisers provides a great opportunity to show local residents and politicians that auto/truck clubs are a positive community force.
6. Build Relationships With The Local Media
Contact local newspapers and radio/TV stations to publicize truck shows, charity events, etc.
7. Invite Officials To Participate In Your Events
Give legislators a platform to reach an audience of constituents.
8. Build An Automotive Coalition
Create coalitions to add strength in numbers and ensure the rights of all vehicle enthusiasts are represented. Actively participating in regional and statewide councils will develop a unified message to lawmakers. These types of pro-hobbyist groups can be an influential political force.
9. Spread The Word
Take this information to your next club meeting, cruise night, or post it on your online forums. Share this information with other enthusiasts who are willing to help lobby for the hobby.
10. Register To Vote
Exercise your right to support pro-hobby candidates. Constituents are an elected official's number-one priority. Without you and your vote of support, they would not be in office, so make sure you're registered and get out and vote.
State Legislators Who Support The Hobby
In its efforts to promote and protect the specialty equipment industry and the automotive hobby in the states, SEMA partners with state lawmakers from across the country through the State Automotive Enthusiast Leadership Caucus. Formed in 2005 to supplement the work of our grassroots hobbyist network (SAN), the Caucus is a bi-partisan group of state lawmakers whose common thread is a love and appreciation for automobiles. Supported by SEMA's Government Affairs office in Washington, D.C., the Caucus is serving to raise the motor vehicle hobby's profile in the state legislature's opinion and in the eyes of the public. Working in state capitals, many of these legislators have sought to preserve and protect the hobby by improving existing motor vehicle statutes and creating new programs to safeguard and expand the hobby.
Over the past several years, the work of these lawmakers has brought a series of significant legislative accomplishments for the vehicle enthusiast community and specialty equipment industry on issues ranging from equipment standards and registration and titling classifications to emissions test exemptions and the rights of hobbyists to engage in backyard restorations.
"The automobile is part of our culture and history," said New York Assemblyman Bill Reilich, the current Caucus Chairman. "I am extremely pleased by how the membership numbers have increased, however, our work is not done. I will continue to work with the SEMA Government Affairs staff to help educate and encourage participation by our state governmental leaders and work toward our goal of having at least 500 members actively participating in the Caucus."
The work of Caucus members has brought a series of significant legislative accomplishments for the vehicle enthusiast community. By joining the Caucus, these legislators have demonstrated their commitment to upholding the rights of vehicle enthusiasts. In addition, hobbyists are able to quickly identify which state legislators have chosen to be recognized for their support of this great American hobby. Approximately 450 state legislators from all 50 states are involved in the Caucus. Here is a comprehensive list of current Caucus members.
Assembly Member - Bill Reilich (New York)
Senator - Roger Bedford
Representative - Mike Ball, Victor Gaston, H. Mac Gipson, Laura Hall, Johnny Morrow, William E. Thigpen, Randy Wood
Senator - Fred Dyson
Representative - David Guttenberg
Senator - Robert Burns, Ron Gould, Linda Lopez
Representative - Tom Boone, David Bradley, Jack Harper, Bill Konopnicki, Nancy McLain, Lynne Pancrazi, Jerry Weiers, Vic Williams
Senator - Denny Altes, Shane Broadway, Gene Jeffress, Johnny Key
Representative - Allen Kerr, Mark Martin, Barbara Nix
Senator - Ron Calderon, Dave Cogdill, Jeff Denham, Dennis Hollingsworth, Bob Huff, Gloria Negrete-McLeod, George Runner
Assembly Member - Joel Anderson, Jim Beall, Bill Emmerson, Felipe Fuentes Ted Gaines, Martin Garrick, Kevin Jeffries, Tony Mendoza, Roger Niello Alberto Torrico, Michael Villines
Senator - Ken Kester
Representative - Debbie Benefield, Larry Liston, Nancy Todd, Edward Vigil
Senator - Scott Frantz, Robert Kane
Representative - Penny Bacchiochi, Toni Walker, Zeke Zalaski
Representative - William Oberle Jr.
Representative - Eddy Gonzalez, Bill Heller, Ed Hooper, Dave Murzin, Pat Patterson
Senator - Bill Heath, Chip Rogers
Representative - Bob Hanner, Calvin Hill, Mike Keown, Howard Mosby, Alan Powell, Nikki Randall, Bobby Reese, Tony Sellier
Senator - Suzanne Chun Oakland
Representative - Henry Aquino, Karen Awana, Jerry Chang
Senator - Jim Hammond, Mike Jorgenson
Representative - Marv Hagedorn, Bill Killen, Janice McGeachin, Rich Wills
Senator - Brad Burzynski
Representative - Annazette Collins, Kay Hatcher, Brandon Phelps, Robert Pritchard, Harry R. Ramey, Al Riley, Jim Sacia
Senator - Brandt Hershman, Travis Holdman, Dennis Kruse, Sue Landske
Representative - Bill Friend, Wes Culver, Tom Knollman, Nancy Michael, P. Eric Turner
Senator - Staci Appel, Jeff Danielson, Wally Horn
Representative - Dwayne Alons, Dave Deyoe, Cecil Dolecheck, Jim Lykam
Senator - Mike Petersen, Chris Steineger
Representative - Bob Bethell, Elaine Bowers, Doug Gatewood, Mario Goico, Carl Holmes, Deena Horst, Harold Lane, Judith Loganbill, Peggy Mast, Ray Merrick, Melvin Neufeld, Shirley Palmer, Michael Peterson, Don Schroeder, Joe Seiwert, Dale Swenson, Bill Wolf
Senator - Tom Buford, Joey Pendleton, Dorsey Ridley, Robin Webb
Representative - Thomas Burch, Tim Couch, Ted Edmonds, Danny Ford, Keith Hall, Charlie Hoffman, Richard Henderson, Mary Lou Marzian, Reginald Meeks, Ruth Ann Palumbo, Don Pasley, Jody Richards, Tom Riner, Brent Yonts
Senator - A.G. Crowe, Ben Nevers, Francis Thompson, Mike Walsworth
Representative - Jeffery Arnold, Damon Baldone, Girod Jackson III, John LaBruzzo, Anthony Ligi, Nickie Monica, M.J. Smiley
Senator - Douglas Smith
Representative - Richard Cebra, Dale Crafts, Gary Knight, Everett McLeod, Sr., Ann Peoples, Michael Shaw, Linda Sanborn, Nancy Smith
Senator - Barry Glassman, Katherine Klausmeier
Delegate - Don Dwyer, Jr., Barbara Frush, Cheryl Glenn, Benjamin Kramer, Warren Miller, Wayne Norman, Jay Walker
Representative - Fred Barrows, Robert Hargraves
Senator - Glenn Anderson, Nancy Cassis, Ron Jelinek
Representative - David Agema, Bill Caul, Larry DeShazor, Douglas Geiss, Martin Griffin, Ken Horn, Rick Jones, Eileen Kowall, Richard LeBlanc, Chuck Moss, Tom Pearce, John Proos, Bettie Cook Scott, Joel Sheltrown, John Walsh
Senator - Michael Jungbauer, David Tomassoni
Representative - Jim Abeler, Pat Garofalo, Steve Gottwalt, Rick Hansen, Melissa Hortman, Margaret Anderson Kelliher, Carol McFarlane, Ron Shimanski, Phil Sterner
Senator - Hillman Frazier
Representative - Scott Delano, Ken Morgan, Dannie Reed, Walter Robinson Jr.
Representative - Curt Dougherty, Joe Fallert, Tim Jones, Gayle Kingery, Don Wells, Patricia Yaeger
Senator - John Brueggeman, Jeff Essmann, Ryan Zinke
Representative - Jill Cohenour, Gordon Hendrick, Mike Miller, Penny Morgan, Bill Nooney, Josh Peck, Wayne Stahl
Senator - Colby Coash, Heath Mello, Jeremy Nordquist
Senator - Bob Coffin, David Parks
Assembly Member - Bernie Anderson, Chad Christensen, Moises (Mo) Denis, Ellen Marie Koivisto, Mark Manendo, John Oceguera, Lynn Stewart
New Hampshire
Representative - Ronald Boisvert, Gene Charron, Daniel Eaton, Philip Harvey, John Henson, Timothy Horrigan, Paul Ingersoll, Russell Ingram, Robert Introne, Michael McCarthy, Carol McGuire, Sherman Packard, Lawrence Perkins, Ken Weyler
New Jersey
Assembly Member - Gary Chiusano, Upenda Chivukula, Alison Littell McHose, Charlotte Vandervalk
New Mexico
Senator - Clinton Harden
Representative - Jose Campos, Nathan Cote, Rudy Martinez, Bill Rehm
New York
Senator - Jeff Klein, Thomas Libous
Assembly Member - Jim Bacalles, Greg Ball, William Barclay, Philip Boyle, Daniel Burling, Marc Butler, Nancy Calhoun, Robert Castelli, James Conte, Clifford Crouch, RoAnn Destito, Janet Duprey, Steve Englebright, Joseph Errigo, Ginny Fields, Gary Finch, Mike Fitzpatrick, Dennis Gabryszak, Joseph Giglio, Steve Hawley, Janele Hyer-Spencer, Brian Kolb, Peter Lopez, Donna Lupardo, David McDonough, Marcus Molinaro, Bob Oaks, Thomas O'Mara, Jack Quinn, Andrew Raia, Bill Reilich, Joseph Saladino, Teresa Sayward, Mark Schroeder, Dede Scozzafava, James Tedisco, David Townsend, Jr.
North Carolina
Senator - Julia Boseman
Representative - Marilyn Avila Representative John Blust, Larry Brown, George Cleveland, Nelson Cole, Tricia Ann Cotham, William Current, Bill Faison, Phillip Frye, Rosa Gill, Bruce Goforth, Hugh Holliman, Julia Howard, Frank Iler, Tim Moore, Wil Neumann, Shirley B. Randleman, Mitchell Setzer, Fred Steen, II, Laura Wiley, Arthur Williams
North Dakota
Senator - Dick Dever, Tom Fischer, Judy Lee, Elroy Lindaas
Representative - Chuck Damschen, Jerry Kelsh, David Monson, Darrell Nottestad, Louis Pinkerton, Robin Weisz, Alon Wieland
Representative - Michael DeBose, Mark Schneider, Lynn Wachtmann, Kenny Yuko
Senator - Davie Myers
Representative - Wallace Collins, Scott Inman, Danny Morgan
Representative - Jeff Barker, Brian Clem
Senator - Daylin Leach, J. Barry Stout, Michael Waugh
Representative - Scott Conklin, Dom Costa, Brian Cutler, Peter Daley, John Evans, Rick Geist, Gary Haluska, Patrick Harkins, Dick Hess, Tom Houghton, Mark Longietti, John Pallone, Eddie Day Pashinski, John Payne, Tony Payton, Jr., Scott Perry, John Siptroth, Tim Solobay, Curt Sonney
Rhode Island
Senator - William Walaska
Representative - John J. Loughlin II
South Carolina
Senator - Larry Martin
Representative - Dan Hamilton, J. Gary Simrill, Tommy Stringer
South Dakota
Senator - Jim Hundstad
Representative - Thomas Brunner, Elaine M. Elliot, Richard Engels, Charles Hoffman, Mark Kirkeby
Senator - Tim Burchett
Representative - Vince Dean, JoAnne Favors, Craig Fitzhugh, Jim Hackworth, Sherry Jones, Gary Moore, John Tidwell, Joe Towns, Mark White, Les Winningham, Eddie Yokley
Representative - Wayne Christian, Ellen Cohen, Garnet Coleman, Patricia Harless, Mark Homer, Charlie Howard, Edmund Kuempel, Solomon Ortiz, Jr., Joe Pickett, Allen Vaught
Senator - Gene Davis, Brent Goodfellow, Howard Stephenson
Representative - Ron Bigelow, Tim Cosgrove, Gage Froerer, Neal Hendrickson, Gregory Hughes, Fred Hunsaker, Curtis Oda, Patrick Painter, Stephen Sandstrom, Kenneth Sumsion
Senator - Kevin Mullin
Representative - Joseph Baker
Senator - John Edwards, Emmett Hanger, L. Louise Lucas
Delegate - Morgan Griffith, Daniel Marshall, Mark L Keam, Sam Nixon, Dave Nutter, G. Glenn Oder, Kenneth Plum, Tom Rust, Mark Sickles, Ron A. Villanueva, Onzlee Ware
Senator - Mike Carrell, Jerome Delvin, Jim Honeyford
Representative - Mike Armstrong, Jan Angel, Tom Campbell, Cary Condotta, Bob Hasegawa, Ed Orcutt, Deb Wallace, Marcie Maxwell
West Virginia
Senator - Dave Sypolt
Delegate - Robert Beach, Ron Fragale, Virginia Mahan, Cliff Moore, Thomas Mike Porter, Harry Keith White
Senator - Mary Lazich
Representative - Ed Brooks, Steve Kestell, Phil Montgomery, John Nygren
Representative - Stan Blake, Pat Childers, Mike Gilmore, Sue Wallis
The Congressional Automotive Performance And Motorsports Caucus
You might be surprised by the number of car guys (and gals) in Washington, D.C. working on behalf of hobbyists like yourself. These are senators and congressional representatives who, as enthusiasts, are interested in protecting and expanding our hobby.
Photo 14/14   |   SEMA Automotive Hobby Information state Automotive Enthusiast Leadership Caucus
The Congressional Automotive Performance and Motorsports Caucus is now nearing 100 members and pays tribute to America's ever-growing love affair with the automobile and motorsports. In Washington, SEMA works in partnership with Caucus members to amplify the message among national policy-makers that the automotive performance industry is a vital engine in today's economy, employing more than a million Americans and generating $32 billion in sales annually.
The legislators listed below have publicly shown their appreciation for our hobby by joining the Caucus.
Sam Brownback (R-KS), Richard Burr (R-NC), Michael Crapo (R-ID), Jim DeMint (R-SC), Kay Bailey Hutchison (R-TX), John Ensign (R-NV), John Kerry (D-MA), Jon Kyl (R-AZ), Mary Landrieu (D-LA), Carl Levin (D-MI), Debbie Stabenow (D-MI), Jon Tester (D-MT)
House Members
Rodney Alexander (R-LA), Brian Baird (D-WA), Joe Barton (R-TX), Shelley Berkley (D-NV), Gus Bilirakis (R-FL), Sanford Bishop (D-GA), Marsha Blackburn (R-TN), John Boozman (R-AR), Leonard Boswell (D-IA), Rick Boucher (D-VA), Allen Boyd (D-FL), Kevin Brady (R-TX), Ginny Brown-Waite (R-FL), Michael Burgess (R-TX), Dan Burton (R-IN), Ken Calvert (R-CA), John Campbell (R-CA), André Carson (D-IN), Howard Coble (R-NC), Jim Cooper (D-TN), Jerry Costello (D-IL), Lincoln Davis (D-TN), Joe Donnelly (D-IN), Mike Doyle (D-PA), John J. Duncan (R-TN), Bob Etheridge (D-NC), Randy Forbes (R-VA), Trent Franks (R-AZ), Elton Gallegly (R-CA), Bob Goodlatte (R-VA), Bart Gordon (D-TN), Gene Green (D-TX), Ralph Hall (R-TX), Doc Hastings (R-WA), Jeb Hensarling (R-TX), Bob Inglis (R-SC), Darrell Issa (R-CA), Walter Jones (R-NC), Paul Kanjorski (D-PA), Marcy Kaptur (D-OH), Dale E. Kildee (D-MI), Jack Kingston (R-GA), Steve LaTourette (R-OH), Sander Levin (D-MI), John Linder (R-GA), Frank LoBiondo (R-NJ), Donald Manzullo (R-IL), Patrick McHenry (R-NC), Mike McIntyre (D-NC), Howard McKeon (R-CA), Gary Miller (R-CA), Jeff Miller (R-FL), Dennis Moore (D-KS), Sue Myrick (R-NC), Tom Petri (R-WI), Todd Platts (R-PA), Bill Posey (R-FL), Adam Putnam (R-FL), George Radanovich (R-CA), Nick Rahall (D-WV), Silvestre Reyes (D-TX), Dana Rohrabacher (R-CA), Mike Rogers (R-MI), Steven R. Rothman (D-NJ), Edward Royce (R-CA), Loretta Sanchez (D-CA), Adam Schiff (D-CA), Jean Schmidt (R-OH), Pete Sessions (R-TX), Joe Sestak (D-PA), Brad Sherman (D-CA), Adam Smith (D-WA), Vic Snyder (D-AR), Mark Souder (R-IN), John Spratt (D-SC), Cliff Stearns (R-FL), Bart Stupak (D-MI), Todd Tiahrt (R-KS), Patrick J. Tiberi (R-OH), Michael Turner (R-OH), Fred Upton (R- MI), Zach Wamp (R-TN), Joe Wilson (R-SC)